The Italian Development Cooperation - Historical series
Aid during the time
The variation of resources committed and paid for Bilateral and Multi-bilateral development aid
Aid in numbers
Bilateral and Multi-bilateral
Italian development projects
Total funding committed
Total funding used
What is it spent for?
The purpose/sector of destination of a bilateral contribution should be selected by answering the question “which specific area of the recipient’s economic or social structure is the transfer intended to foster”. The sector classification does not refer to the type of goods or services provided by the donor. Sector specific education or research activities (e.g. agricultural education) or construction of infrastructure (e.g. agricultural storage) should be reported under the sector to which they are directed, not under education, construction, etc. read more close
By means of?
The typology identifies the modalities that are used in aid delivery. It classifies transfers from the donor to the first recipient of funds (e.g. the recipient country, a multilateral organisation, or a basket fund). It does not track the end uses of the funds, which is addressed in the sector classification and to some extent through the policy objective markers. read more close
The extending agency is the government entity (central, state or local government agency or department) financing the activity from its own budget. It is the budget holder, controlling the activity on its own account. Agencies administering activities on behalf of other government entities should not be reported as extending agencies but as channels of delivery. read more close
Italian development aid in brief
1. Background and main reasons for the presence of Italian Cooperation
Despite the positive conclusion of the process which led to the birth of South Sudan on July 9th 2011, tensions were recorded both within the Country, with several ethnic conflicts, especially in the Jonglei State, and at the international level, considering the troubled relations with the Government of Khartoum.
A detailed Road Map has been agreed between Juba and Khartoum to end several bilateral issues, including security and oil resumption but the political and economic situation is still marked by high instability. Such instability does not facilitate the Government’s budget planning, both for the running costs and the investments that are extremely necessary for the development of South Sudan.
The humanitarian implications of the conflict have been significant, when looking at the hundred thousands of IDPs and refugees fleeing from conflicts in Sudan, most of which at the borders with Ethiopia and South Sudan.
In 2013, the number of South Sudanese refugees is expected to reach 350.000 individuals, mainly coming from Sudan. Moreover, over 200.000 internally displaced people are foreseen and 125.000 South Sudanese are envisaged to come back from Sudan.
Even though data provided by the WFP and the FAO reported that there is an increase in food availability in the Country due to a good harvesting season in some regions, the situation remains critical with 4.1 million of South Sudanese suffering of food insecurity (4.7 million in 2012).
According to the UN Human Development Report 2012, Sudan dropped from rank 169 (UNDP 2010) to 171 (UNDP 2011), while the ranking for South Sudan is not yet available (at the moment data for Sudan still includes South Sudan).
The Italian Cooperation has been present in South Sudan for a long time, particularly in the Lakes State (Rumbek) with specific interventions both in the health and education sector. A traditional presence has been ensured by the non-governmental sector, very active to support hospitals, to improve maternal health and to enhance the rehabilitation of disabled people. Italy also had an important role in the stability and peace- building process between Sudan and South Sudan, where the presence of the Italian Cooperation has always been very appreciated thanks to the adoption of a moderate political approach and the promotion of dialogue along the years.
2. Other international donors, coordination and opportunities of division of labor, joint evaluation exercises (Harmonization)
Government-Donors coordination in South Sudan has always been better structured if compared to that of Sudan. Being South Sudan among the highest aid recipients in the world, donor coordination has become more and more compelling, both at the sector/cluster level and at humanitarian emergency level for development specific programs. Indeed, South Sudan is considered a country in transition from post-conflict emergency to long term development, despite instability and fragile balances.
Already in July 2009, before the separation of Sudan and South Sudan, donors decided to endorse a “new deal”, known as Sudan Contact, with the “Government of the South”, aimed at speeding up and focusing the disbursements of the Multi Donors Trust Fund (MDTF-SS) on the most important sectors and promoting transparency and the Government’s involvement in sector development plans.
The MDTF-SS has currently ended investing its funds of $718 million in 21 successful development projects in all the 10 States of the Country. Recently, due to the urgent necessities of both Country and Donors, some Pooled Funds like HPF (Health Pooled Fund) and CHF (Common Humanitarian Fund) have been created and reinforced in order to increase joint participation of governments and humanitarian actors. To make the effort of Donors as transparent as possible and in line with the aid’s international principles of efficiency and effectiveness, some coordination groups have been established to ensure information sharing and enhancing joint activities.
Among others, Italy is represented in the following fora:
- HM (Humanitarian Meeting) organized by ECHO on humanitarian issues for achieving a unique position at the HCT (Humanitarian Cooperation Team) headed by OCHA/UNHCR/UN, to increase the interaction between EU Member States, Switzerland, Norway, United States and Canada;
- IDCF (Inter Donor Coordination Forum) chaired by WB and UNDP to share information about the economic situation, political issues and the updated cooperation/emergency in the Country;
- EU/HoC (Head of Cooperation Meeting);
- EU/HoM (Head of Mission Meeting);
- DSB (Diplomatic Security Meeting) lead by UN-DSS for updates on current security concerns and procedures to be followed according to particular circumstances.
Moreover, every Donor, depending on the sector of interest and aid provided, takes part to a SWG (Sector Working Group) that aims at facilitating definition of strategies and interventions, jointly with the Government.
Regarding the European coordination strategy, the Italian Cooperation was actively involved in the EU Joint Programming for the drafting of the Southern Sudan Development Plan, even months before the official independence of the new Country (July 2011).
Under the EU Joint Programming exercise, a new mapping strategy of each EU Member State has been introduced in order to identify the magnitude of aid, sectors of intervention and geographic areas. The final objective of this exercise is to streamline aid according to the comparative advantages that each single EU member state may have in different sectors and geographical areas. Such approach has stressed the Italian presence in two main sectors Italy has traditionally operated in (health and education), with the geographical focus on the Lakes State, where few development investments have been channelled.
However, the nature of the investments available – usually annual allocations through the international missions decree – makes it difficult for the Italian Cooperation to have a multi-annual strategy programme, fully involved in the EU Joint Programming. As a consequence, the adopted strategy relies on the coordination with the EU Delegation following the sector and geographic concentration approach, to channel the available resources to multilateral agencies and Italian NGOs.
The last EU survey identifies Italy ranking 6th among its Member States for funding made available to South Sudan for development projects that are still under implementation. Thanks to the presence of two technical experts based in Juba, since October 2012, it has been possible to increase the relationship with the counterparts that has empowered connections with UN Agencies, EU Delegation, several NGOs, other Diplomatic Representations and the Local Government.
3. Other expressions of the Italian Cooperation System in the country (NGOs, universities, local authorities, private sector) and strategies for their involvement
The Italian Cooperation, through NGOs, has been present in South Sudan since the end of the ‘80s, mainly working in the agricultural development, social and health sector, with particular attention to hospital infrastructures, capacity building of health workers focusing on maternal and newborn health. The 2012 contribution of the Italian Cooperation to the initiatives promoted by Italian NGOs has reached €4 million: ongoing projects, currently implemented by AISPO, AMREF, AVSI, CUAMM, and CEFA, aim at improving access to basic services for South Sudanese population.
Several appreciations came from beneficiaries and local authorities for the dedicated work of Italian NGOs, especially those working in the health and education sector. In a general view of systemic cooperation, the active involvement of all the cooperation actors on the field is considered crucial, especially when socio- economic conditions and the security situation will improve and will enable the participation of the private sector, local authorities, university and research.
4. General objectives of the Italian cooperation in the country, sharing with counterparts and consistency with international guidelines on aid effectiveness
Following the independence of South Sudan, there has been a shift of responsibility from the Italian Embassy/UTL in Khartoum to the Italian Embassy/UTL in Addis Abeba.
The intervention strategy as identified by the DGCS is enshrined in the “Indicative Programme of the Italian- Sudanese Cooperation 2010-2011” that has been prepared on the assumption of a single strategy country “Sudan and South Sudan” even though the above mentioned programme has been jointly defined with the counterparts.
The strategy discussed with other donors is focused on poverty reduction and social livelihood for the most vulnerable groups, in alignment with the UN Millennium Goals and with the 2011-2013 South Sudanese National Development Plan.
The current Italian Cooperation intervention in South Sudan is strongly linked to former initiatives started before the Independence of the Country and reaffirms its commitment in the social, primary education and health sector focusing on women and children. The Italian Cooperation has pledged a consistent amount of funds into the humanitarian sector, since the emergency situation in the country is meant to persist. In 2012 the Italian Cooperation has financed and enounced different initiatives through multilateral and bilateral channels, including NGOs funding for a total allocation of 20 million euros.
The integrated and synergistic interventions undertaken by the Italian Cooperation have been highly appreciated by the local government authorities. The direct support to the health system has been realized improving the few hospital infrastructures of the Country: Rumbek hospital (Lakes State) received a financial support of €3 million through a directly managed programme which has just concluded, whereas, Yirol hospital (Lakes State) and Lui hospital (Western Equatoria) are supported by projects implemented by the Italian NGO CUAMM.
The general approach of the Italian Cooperation is aligned with the 2011-2013 Southern Sudan Development Plan which was presented in November 2010 in Juba, identifying 4 pillars: governance, economic growth, human and social development, peace-building and conflict prevention.
5. Sectors of intervention and expected results
In 2012, the Italian support to South Sudan has been ensured by the international missions decree’s funding which directed €4.5 million to the multilateral channel. These resources have been allocated as it follows: a contribution of €1.5 million to UNICEF for the provision of health services for children; IOM has been financed with €1.5 million for the assistance of Sudanese refugees involved in the ongoing conflicts in South Kordofan and Southern Blue Nile; an allocation of € 1.5 million addressed to UNICEF and IOM for an institutional strengthening of the Ministry for the Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management (MHADM) and the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (RRC), in alignment with the UN consolidated appeal for South Sudan 2012 (CAP-012); UNOPS received €462.761 for the already ended health project directly implemented by the Italian Cooperation in the Lakes State.
The 2013 mission decree’s funding whose total amount in the multilateral channel reached €1.3 million will be also used to increase the contribution directed towards UNOPS’ activities within the health sector. In the emergency channel, it has been planned a funding proposal of €500.000 which will be implemented by Italian NGOs. The proposal focuses on the Lakes State and will be addressed to NGOs with experiences on the field. It will not be subjected to any sector restrictions therefore, projects in different sectors such as health, education, agriculture or water will be admitted to the bidding. The monitoring and evaluation process of ongoing activities and the donor coordination will also be supported by a specific programme of technical assistance through the bilateral channel. In conclusion, the DGCS together with the Embassy/UTL in Addis Abeba, is taking into consideration the possibility of increasing aid budget for infrastructure development.