The Italian Development Cooperation - Historical series
Aid during the time
The variation of resources committed and paid for Bilateral and Multi-bilateral development aid
Aid in numbers
Bilateral and Multi-bilateral
Italian development projects
Total funding committed
Total funding used
What is it spent for?
The purpose/sector of destination of a bilateral contribution should be selected by answering the question “which specific area of the recipient’s economic or social structure is the transfer intended to foster”. The sector classification does not refer to the type of goods or services provided by the donor. Sector specific education or research activities (e.g. agricultural education) or construction of infrastructure (e.g. agricultural storage) should be reported under the sector to which they are directed, not under education, construction, etc. read more close
By means of?
The typology identifies the modalities that are used in aid delivery. It classifies transfers from the donor to the first recipient of funds (e.g. the recipient country, a multilateral organisation, or a basket fund). It does not track the end uses of the funds, which is addressed in the sector classification and to some extent through the policy objective markers. read more close
The extending agency is the government entity (central, state or local government agency or department) financing the activity from its own budget. It is the budget holder, controlling the activity on its own account. Agencies administering activities on behalf of other government entities should not be reported as extending agencies but as channels of delivery. read more close
Italian development aid in brief
1. Background and main reasons for the presence of Italian Cooperation.
Based on Italian Cooperation guidelines, Sudan is a priority country for aid and development. Since 2000, until the present time it has benefitted of about 140 million Euro. Sudan is marked by arduous imbalances between the center and the peripheries as well as by the degradation of basic services (like access to safe drinking water, health, education) and infrastructures. According to the Human Development Index Sudan ranks 171st out of 187 countries.
Following the secession with South Sudan, in 2011, the country was shocked by a enormous change and lost about 75% of its oil revenue. As a consequence, Sudan fall in a deep economic-financial and political crisis that contribute to the reduction of the annual growth rate from 20% in the period 2006-2010 to the present rate of 2,9%. The separation of the two states became the focal point of the internal and external Sudanese politics, seeking to stabilize the relationships with South Sudan and to end the border’s disputes. The combination of the embargo from the USA with the departure of many international organizations (which work mainly with South Sudan) let the Sudanese Government strengthening the control over policies towards foreigners aid actors. The enforcement of the policies imply the limitation of movements of internationals citizens among States and reduced access to areas of aid intervention (i.e. project implementation areas). The practice resulted also in the expulsion of some NGOs and/or international actors. The latest event, February 2014, is the suspension from the activities of the International Committee of Red Cross.
Although the situation is getting worse (i.e. Darfur, borders with South Sudan conflicts), the Italian Cooperation has always been able to interact positively in the peace process and in favor of development. The remarkable presence of Italian Cooperation has been possible thanks to effectiveness of interventions, to the steady relationship with the local and national Governments and to a long standing approach towards the promotion of dialogue. These intense relationships allow the I.C. to face minor hurdles in implementing its projects.
During the year 2013, the Italian Cooperation’s activities have been carried out according to the Guidelines above mentioned. The interventions of the Italian Cooperation contributes to enhance health conditions and to eradicate extreme poverty within the targeted areas. As such conforming its action to country’s priorities, development plans and Millennium Development Goals.
The majority of international organizations focus their actions in the conflict areas (such as Darfur, Nuba Mountains, South Kordophan), concentrating in south and west Sudan a significant part of their Public Development Aid (PDA). Notwithstanding, since 2011, the I.C. is seeking to concentrate its action in Eastern Sudan – Kassala, Gedaref and Red Sea States – where the socio-economic indicators are among the lowest in the Country; and in the health and rural development sectors. Thanks to the Italian Cooperation’s territorial concentration and synergetic approach in Eastern Sudan, the targeted area untertaken several projects – both bilateral and multilateral – financed by the Italian PDA, that resulted in positive outcomes for the beneficiaries and for donor’s visibility.
The remarkable outcomes achieved with the projects financed (and implemented) by the I.C. in Eastern Sudan led the European Commission designate Italy for the implementation of two health programs through the delegate cooperation. The first program Promoting Qualitative Health Services in Eastern Sudan, intervene in the three States with a budget of 8,6 million Euros pursuant to the European Development Fund (EDF). It started in January 2014 and will last for three-years. The second program Improve the health status of vulnerable populations of Eastern Sudan, with a budget of 4,5 million Euros pursuant to the fund of Système de Stabilisation des Recettes d'Exportation (STABEX). The latter is still under definition of the delegate agreement. It is important to underline that it is the first time the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the General Directorate for Development Cooperation is in charge of the of being the implementing partner within the framework of the European Union delegate cooperation’s initiatives.
2. Other international donors, coordination and opportunities for division of labor, joint evaluation (harmonization).
The major donors of the PDA are the United States of America, the European Union, the United Kingdom and Japan. They are mainly active implementing actions (including coordination activities) in Darfur. Concerning actions that set up coordination mechanisms Italy, together with the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Canada, Spain, Iceland and Greece, has contributed and participated to the Multi Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) promoted by the World Bank. The program ended in December 2013 and Italy has decided to transfer the residual balance to the Multi Partners Trust Fund, as follow-up of the MDTF. Due to the lack of definition of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, the coordination mechanisms among donors community are mainly based on political or sectorial actions. It is relevant to point out the monitoring process over the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, specifically the humanitarian section.
Furthermore other coordination actions are:
- the UN-Donors Group meets monthly and the meeting is formed by the Humanitarian Coordinator, by the representatives of the major United Nations Agencies, by Heads of Mission and by the Development Cooperation Directors;
- the Humanitarian Forum is announced monthly by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Aid and can participate also NGOs;
- the Informal Humanitarian Donors Group is a specific donors group and deals mainly with emergency responses;
- the High Level Committee, established by the Joint Communiqué for Darfur, it is formed by key ministries, NGOs, donors and UN Agencies representatives. The aim is to guarantee the enforcement of the agreement and insure the implementation of humanitarian aid actions in Darfur.
The technical coordination regarding development issues is limited and often restricted to thematic topics (i.e. Within the IBES framework there is the coordination group for education). Finally, there is a monthly meeting of European Development Cooperation Directors. The gathering it is mainly informative considering the inability to comply with specific division of labor’s rules since Sudan did not subscribed the Cotonou Convention..
3. Other actors of the Italian Cooperation System in the country (NGOs, universities, local authorities, private sector) and strategies for their involvement.
Sudan has a complex historical background and in this framework the Italian presence is, currently, limited to a representative number of NGOs (Emergency, Intersos, COOPI, COSV and OVCI) and religious organizations (Comboni, Salesiani) active in Darfur, North Kordophan, Red Sea and Khartoum States. NGOs and religious organizations are involved in several fields of interventions: health (also specialized care), disability, education, vocational training and water and sanitation. Their projects and activities are often are complementary to the I.C. actions. Two NGOs constructed and manage ‘excellences’ health centers, internationally recognized and appreciated (cardiac surgery hospital Salam in Khartoum, run by Emergency and the Center for disabled people realized by the NGO OVCI). Although NGOs remark relevant achievements, they constantly face hurdles, in particular, regarding the issue of visas and travel permit (limiting the movement capacity within the Country) for expatriates staff. The involvement of the Universities, thanks to the interest of the Italian Embassy/Local Technical Unit (LTU) proceeds with the aim of strengthening partnerships between Italians and Sudanese Universities. Among the involved Universities can be recall: Padua, Sassari, Siena and IUAV (Venice). The collaboration is currently focused in the field of health care activities, priority sector of intervention for the DGDC, however there is an increase interest towards agriculture and agro-business sectors. Our Embassy/LTU has been constantly committed towards a coordinated action and strong communication among the Italian actors working in Sudan.
4. Main goals of the Italian Cooperation in the country, sharing with counterparts and consistency with international guidelines on aid effectiveness.
The Italian Cooperation in Sudan conducts support actions to the Sudanese population. The initiatives seek to reduce extreme poverty by improving health, hygiene and education in the targeted areas. The actions of the Italian Cooperation are in line with those carried out by the international community. The partnership and collaboration with the Government has been constantly fostered by adopting all the coordination mechanisms within the framework for Fragile States Principles, Accra, Paris and Busan Declarations. Furthermore the actions aim to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and are coherent with the priorities underlined in Sudan Development Plans. In addition, the weakness of the local institutions and the inadequate presence of shared mean of verification with the Authorities (i.e. in relation to the achievement of objectives or regarding evaluation criteria in order to check results) slow down the implementation phase of programs and initiatives. Nevertheless the situation can improve with the subscription of bilateral development cooperation technical agreements whenever there will be specific conditions. However Sudan, still lack a final version and the implementation agreements of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), moreover did not signed the Cotonou agreement, therefore it is still extremely complex for the Country to receive assistance from a larger international donor community as well as to access initiative for debt cancellation (since it is an Heavily Indebted Poor Country – HIPC).
5. Priority areas of intervention and expected results.
As stated the I.C. priorities sectors in Sudan are health together with rural development/eradication of extreme poverty, protection of disabled people. Finally cross-cutting issues are gender equality, professional trainings and education.
Within those sectors the main focus are the following objectives:
- Health. Improvement of the maternal, neonatal and child protection as well as the control of the infective diseases, health education, prevention and early diagnosis. Promote the access to basic and qualitative improved services. Strengthening the public health system, in particular Primary Health Care at decentralized level and the Health Information System;
- Rural development/eradication of extreme poverty. Through the construction and management of community water facilities (for human and livestock use). Infrastructures for water distribution (in schools and health centers) and the construction of small dams (water canal-systems for irrigation). Contribute to the improvement of the quality of life in terms of hygiene, health and production activity at local level;
- Protection of disabled people. Inclusion of disabled in trainings and rehabilitative activities and ad hoc interventions through the NGOs actions.
Cross-cutting areas of intervention:
- Professional Trainings. Represent a cross-cutting issue of ongoing projects and can constitute the main activity. The professional trainings aim to increase the access to the job market and to facilitate the community reintegration (in particular if the direct beneficiaries are disabled people, internally displace people or refugees);
- Education. The objective is to increase the rate of access to primary school, promote the gender equality, and facilitate the completion of the basic-study cycle. In addition to improve scholastic infrastructures and strengthen the quality of teaching.
- Gender issues. They represent one cross-cutting issue of the I.C. interventions in Sudan (the trainings promote female participation and empowerment). It is also the objective of specific projects that tackle psychological/medical support for the women who are victims of violence in Darfur and treatment for vaginal fistulas);
- Other cross-cutting sectors included in specific initiatives of Italian Cooperation are the industrial development, the environment protection and the mine clearance.